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Monday, August 1, 2011

Obligation of Muslims in Ramadaan
by
Shaykh Saalih al-Luhaydaan حفظه الله
on Saturday, October 16, 2004


The Shaykh حفظه الله و بارك الله فيكbegan by thanking Allaah and praising Him for the honour of letting us live to see the month of Ramadaan once again as it is one of the pillars of Islaam; and he sent his salaam … (There was a break in the audio at this point).


Increase in Worship

It is Allaah's favor upon His creation that He gives His slaves the chance to worship Him (at special times) such that they obtain great rewards at these times. The rewards are better and greater for worshipping Him at these times. One of these times is the month of Ramadaan. In this month of Ramadaan, the Mu'min (Believer) should be different. The people should be able to tell the difference between his time of fasting and when he is not fasting. He should be upon the best manners and the highest morals. It should be very easy for him to help the people and he should be in a state where it is easy for him to forgive or he should strive hard to forgive and look past certain things from the people.

It is also a time for doing business with Allaah سبحانه و تعالى – a time when we can reap great rewards from Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and we can get great blessings by doing business with Allaah سبحانه و تعالى – dealing with Him in affairs of al-Aakhirah (the Hereafter). One should be different because this is one of the arkaan (pillars) of the Deen (Islaam), so it is upon him to show that he is striving and taking care of this pillar as much as possible. That he, is acting upon that which Allaah has ordered him to do. Also, he should stay away from everything that might bring him near to things that would harm him, and they are known, and they are many, and they are great.

In siyaam (fasting) there are great effects regarding the conduct of mankind and even regarding the health of one's body, peace within the heart, and curing and rectifying it from all the dirt and corruption within it. It is also the greatest means of restoring and rebuilding the body.


Prohibitions whilst Fasting

Fasting entails that you submit to the Orders of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and act upon them, and stay away from all those things that Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has made haraam for you whilst fasting, such as eating, drinking and even having relations (intimate relations with your spouse). Staying away from these things whilst fasting is waajib upon you, so don't eat or drink or have any relations with your spouse. And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says: "All of the actions of the son of Aadam are for him, he would be rewarded from one to seven hundred (700) times the hasanah for each good deed that he does; except for fasting, then it is for Me and I would give as much as I please, I would reward him as much as I want."[1]

And some have said that fasting is half of patience. And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:

إِنَّمَا يُوَفَّى الصَّابِرُونَ أَجْرَهُم بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
{...Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning.} [az-Zumar 39:10]

So this is a month that we should all heed, and take care of, and be aware of not wasting it, and take advantage of it wherein the first of it is mercy, and the middle of it is maghfirah (forgiveness) and the end of it is being released from the Hell Fire.[2]


Regulations for this month

The Shaykh حفظه الله went on to say that some of the rules of this month are as follows:

Be upon the best of manners

A person should be upon the greatest of manners, the best of manners. He should take care of helping the people as much as possible – verily the one who is closest to Allaah or most beloved to Allaah is the one who is best to His slaves. And maybe his actions would be a guide to these people and he would be a reason for them to be released from the Hellfire on the Day of Judgment. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم told 'Ali رضي الله عنه that: Verily, if Allaah guides by you one man it is better for you than all of the red camels[3] – and they are the highest and the best form of sustenance or money that the Arabs have.


Order with good and forbid the wrong

The Shaykh حفظه الله went on to say about the Nation of Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم that Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:

كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ
{You (true believers in Islâmic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad [sal-Allâhu 'alayhi wa sallam] and his Sunnah)
are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma'rûf (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism and all that Islâm has ordained)
and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islâm has forbidden)…}
['Aal Imraan 3:110]

That is, you are the best of people to the people[4]. This Ma'roof (good) that you order them with, is the good that all of the pure souls and good hearts which are free from jealousy and hatred against each other would accept. They are the ones that are pure and clean and free from all of these ill things, and they forbid al-Munkar (evil). This evil is that which the clean, pure souls, prevent within themselves; so the clean souls and purified hearts of these pure people are the ones that would forbid this evil. They would forbid it and the ones that would accept it, are the ones that are like them (i.e. the evil ones). So these are some characteristics of the Mu'min:
  • He has no jealousy towards another person .
  • It is very easy for him to help the creation as much as he can so that he may be a means by which they are freed from the Hellfire.
  • He stays away from hurting the people.
  • He is very close to whatever brings one close to Allaah سبحانه و تعالى.

These are some of the characteristics that the Mu'min should be upon at all times and he is praised for them.


Be merciful to the people

So, in the month of Ramadaan, the month of goodness and blessings, we should increase in our (good) actions; it is first and foremost that one should be like that. One should be merciful with the weak and easy with the young. He should respect those people that are deserving of respect – the ones who do not oppress the creation nor cause them any harm. This is because it is from Islaam that we put the people in their (correct) places and we give due respect to the people that deserve respect, especially when those people are not oppressing the people but rather they are doing good. We should show the people that we are serious and sincere about bringing them towards happiness and joyfulness both in this dunya and in the Aakhirah (Hereafter), and there should be no doubt that our happiness and joy is for the Pleasure of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى.


Avoid sinful deeds

The Shaykh حفظه الله went on to say that from the characteristics that the Mu'min should be upon in Ramadaan is that he stays away from all evil and sinful deeds – even outside of Ramadaan, such as lying or making fun of the people. He should take advantage of his dealings with the people at this time. If they are Muslims, then deal with them on the basis that they are Muslims; and if they are not Muslims, then on the basis that you try to show them and guide them to Islaam so that you may be the means by which they may be guided to Islaam and thereby saved from the Hellfire on Yawmul-Qiyaamah.


Order by what Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم ordered

Order by what Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has ordered, by making haraam what Allaah has made haraam in His Book and on the tongue of His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, and by making halaal what Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has made halaal and what the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم made halaal, because whatever Allaah made haraam, then it is haraam and whatever Allaah made halaal, then it is halaal.


What nullifies the Fast

Regarding that which nullifies your fasting, it is eating and drinking and having relations with your spouse during the day of Ramadaan. It is by the ijmaa' (consensus) of the 'Ulamaa that they all nullify the fast except for that which was out of forgetfulness from eating and drinking. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Whoever eats or drinks forgetfully during the day or Ramadaan, then Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has fed him and given him to drink."[5]


Things which reduce the reward for fasting

The Shaykh حفظه الله continued by saying that some of the actions that don't actually nullify your fast but they take away from its barakah (blessings) and they decrease from your fasting are:
  • Al-Gheebah (backbiting) i.e. entering into the people's honour unjustly, or talking about them unjustly or belittling them so that they are disrespected, and mentioning that which they have of shortcomings, or making up certain things that they don't even have just to take them down from their position – and this is no doubt a great oppression.
  • Shaadatuz-Zuur – this is to testify wrongly i.e. to testify whilst knowing that you are lying.
  • An-Nameemah i.e. spreading the words of the people, taking the words of one person to the next person and doing that back and forth, from the perspective of trying to make enmity between them and trying to hurt their relationship – this is an-nameemah. And as the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Whoever does not leave the testification of falsehood and saying with it, then Allaah سبحانه و تعالى is not in need of his fasting."[6]


Things to uphold in this month

Dhikr and Recitation of Qur'aan

The Shaykh حفظه الله went on to say that from the things we need to take care of in Ramadaan is making Dhikr – remembering Allaah سبحانه و تعالى much, and reading the Qur'aan. This month is a great time to do this because Allaah سبحانه و تعالى made this month special as the month of Ramadaan is the month that the Qur'aan was revealed as Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said:

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ
{The month of Ramadaan in which was revealed the Qur'ân, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance
and the Criterion (between right and wrong). }
[al-Baqarah 2:185]

This is a month in which the hearts become alive and those who are listening and being reminded, they strive to listen better. At this time, anyone he may want to harm he would refrain from harming him, not because of the situation but because of his fear of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and this is from the special things in this month.


Obligatory and Optional Salaah

The Shaykh حفظه الله went on to say that one of the things we want to talk about is the Salaah. The salaah is of two types: that which is waajib (obligatory) and that which is nawaafil (optional). From the waajib salaah are those known as the five salawaat that are obligatory upon us on normal days. It is the second pillar of Islaam and it is the greatest pillar of the pillars of action.

The pillars are of two types: pillars of action and pillars of saying. As for the pillar of saying, it is saying:

أشْهَدُ أنْ لا إلهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ، وأشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهُ
"Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha illa Allaahu wa ashadu anna Muhammadar-Rasuulullaahi." This is the first pillar of Islaam, and it is the pillar of saying. The pillars of action are the Salaah (this is the greatest of them), as-Sawm (fasting) and al-Hajj. These are from the pillars of action and when a person is in salaah – his entire salaah is action. He stays away from certain things and he upholds certain things. So, he is staying away from everything external to the salaah at the time of the salaah (of harm) and he is doing what Allaah has ordered him with at the time of salaah.

As for the person that is fasting and does not pray, then he has not gained anything. There is nothing from his fasting that he has gained because as-salaah is the pillar or the pole that holds up al-Islaam. So the person who is fasting but not praying, he gets nothing out of any of his actions. In fact, any action done without salaah is not rewarded because he is building upon nothing. There is no building to be held up because the salaah is the pole that holds up this building.


Doing the optional acts

The Shaykh حفظه الله, he went on to say: As for some of the nawaafil (optional acts) from the actions that we do, then it is what protects the Muslim and keeps him tuned up. It is what brings the slave closer to Allaah سبحانه و تعالى as Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said in the Hadith Qudsi: "My slave does not come closer to me with any action other than those which I have made obligatory upon him (the waajibaat) and he continues to come closer to me and nearer to me by doing the nawaafil until I love him and I become the hearing he hears with and sight he sees with..." [7] until the end of the hadith.

The meaning of this is if Allaah سبحانه و تعالى loves a slave then He becomes his sight that he sees with, He protects him and He becomes the hearing he hears with. This is from Allaah سبحانه و تعالى protecting him from listening to, or hearing that which is haraam. Allaah protects him from seeing or looking at that which is haraam; and it is the same with the rest of his body and the rest of the senses he has. He does not do anything except that which coincides with that which Allaah سبحانه و تعالى loves and likes. And whatever he does from the nawaafil then he has to do it seeking the Face of Allaah alone.


The Night Prayer – Taraaweeh/Tahajjud

From the greatest of his nawaafil the prayer which is known in Ramadaan as the Taraweeh or Tahajjud (praying at night) and this is one of the biggest and clearest signs of Ramadaan, this action as the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

"Whoever fasts Ramadaan upholding it and seeking the reward for it, then Allaah سبحانه و تعالى would forgive him whatever has preceded from his sins."[8]

And he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Whoever stands (in Qiyaam) in Ramadaan, upholding it and seeking the reward from Allaah سبحانه و تعالى then Allaah سبحانه و تعالى would forgive him his previous sins." [9]

And also: "Whoever stands (for praying) on the night of Qadr, then Allaah سبحانه و تعالى would forgive him his previous sins."[10]


Number of Raka'aat for the Night Prayer

The Shaykh حفظه الله went on to say that he would like to deal with the number of raka'aat concerning at-Tahajjud and Taraweeh in Ramadaan. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: The prayer is two two (two rakat by two rakat) and if any of you fears that the morning may come up on him, then he should end it with one. [11]

He صلى الله عليه وسلم did not specify the number of the raka'aat that the person would be praying. Due to this the 'Ulamaa have some dispute between them concerning this issue. Some of them would say only eleven (11) raka'aat because of hadith of 'Aisha رضي الله عنها that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم "… did not pray more than eleven Raka'aat in Ramadaan or in any other month. He used to pray four (4) and do not ask about their length and beauty and then he would pray four (4) and do not ask about their length and beauty and then he would pray three (3) (Witr)."[12] And also in another narration from 'Aisha, Umm Salama and Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنهم that "he صلى الله عليه وسلم prayed thirteen (13) raka'aat."[13]

What has come after that from the Salaf is that the person may do what he wants from the number of raka'aat with the condition that he upholds the Salaah correctly i.e. his Qiyaam is correct and his ruku' is correct and he is serene in his Salaah and he is coming up correctly, straightening his back and he is going down for sujood correctly and so on and so forth so that his salaah is done correctly – this is the condition. So some of them prayed twenty-three (23) raka'aat all the way to thirty-nine (39) raka'aat and nobody would attack or dispute with the other person over the number of raka'aat he was praying. But it is better for the person who would like to make his salaah lengthy and long (his ruku', sujood and qiyaam are long) then it is better for him to stick to the number of eleven (11). As for the person who is not concerned about how long they are, then he is able to increase in the number of raka'aat.


Actions in the last ten nights of Ramadaan

The Shaykh حفظه الله said that when the last ten nights of Ramadaan comes, then the Muslim should increase in his actions, he should increase in his salaah. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, in the first 20 nights of Ramadaan would pray and then go to sleep; and as soon as the 10 last nights came along, he would fold up what he would sleep on and he would tie his pants tight – meaning getting ready for his salaah, and he would bring alive the night by praying.[14] So Rasul Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, in the last 10 nights, he would do more worship and he would increase in his worship[15] in preparation for the night that the Qur'aan was revealed – the night of al-Qadr about which Allaah سبحانه و تعالى said:

لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ
{The Night of Al-Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allâh in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, i.e. 83 years and 4 months).} [al-Qadr 97:3]


Determining the start and end of the Fast

The Shaykh then mentioned that he would note that which concerns the beginning of fasting and it ending. As for the day, then it from the time the morning becomes apparent i.e. Fajr, to the Sunset i.e. Maghrib.

As for the beginning of the month, it is when the crescent (halaal) is seen. Since fasting has already begun (at the time the lecture was given), we would speak about breaking the fast. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Fast when you see it and break your fast when you see it; and if it is hidden from you (behind the clouds) then complete Sha'baan thirty days."[16] And in another narration, "complete the counting" [17] And in another narration, "do not fast until you see it (the crescent) and do not break until you see it; and if it is hidden, then complete the days." [18]

And from these sayings of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, we take the beginning of the month as when the crescent is seen and not through calculation. The seeing of the crescent is established f it is seen with the eyes or through binoculars, or telescopes or satellites. It is permissible if just, truthful people come and present it whether they see it through these devices or through their eyes and notify the people of it, then it can be taken.


Necessity of sighting the crescent and leaving off calculation

The Shaykh حفظه الله went on to say that the necessity of seeing the crescent and leaving off the calculation has been established by the ijmaa' of the Sahaabah and the Tabi'een and the Four Imams and their students and this is what the Islaamic world was upon until very recently - until the people started to become affected by the others. There is no doubt that carrying out the orders of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم is befitting of every Muslim, and Allaah knows if there would be calculations or not. Verily, the Arabs of that time were extremely precise determining in the stations and times of the moon, the planets and the stars such that they even used to calculate the time a planet would appear, if even in the middle of the night.

So what is taken and relied upon concerning the beginning and ending of Ramadaan is seeing the crescent or completing the month and this is what we are upon; this is the action to be taken. So we finished Shaa'ban to be thirty (30) days (in the year 2004/1425H) because the people had not seen the moon on the twenty-ninth (29th) night, so we had to complete to the thirtieth (30th). We didn't see it until the end of the month and we waited until we saw it and then we relied upon that (the sighting). We did not rely upon the scientists saying that the moon would be seen on the twenty-ninth (29th) night and so on, but we took what we saw. This is what I have concerning the beginning and the ending of fasting.



Questions and Answers


1. Question: A brother was giving Da'wah to a man and the kaafir said to him, "How is it that I can enter into a Religion that said Muhammad is more merciful than the Lord" and he noted the hadith of 'Aisha رضي الله عنها in which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said at the end of it "I fear it would become an obligation upon the people…"[19] and likewise the Prophet left the Qiyaamul-Layl i.e. the Taraaweeh in Ramadaan fearing that it would become an obligation and the likes of these ahaadeeth. The brother said, "I did not know how to reply to him at the time, so how should I reply"?
Answer: There is no problem here. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم feared if he and the Sahaabah continued upon their action it would become binding upon them because if they left it, then they would become like the people of Bani Israa'eel who did not care for the blessings upon them. So because of this he صلى الله عليه وسلم feared that if the people stayed upon that action, they would be obliged with it and then all the people would think of it as an obligation because they stayed upon it. And if they were not able to complete this obligation they would leave it believing it was an obligation, thus becoming short in the obligation toward Allaah and causing them sin. The Prophet didn't say he was more merciful than Allaah سبحانه و تعالى neither did 'Aisha رضي الله عنها say this. However, he صلى الله عليه وسلم merely "feared" and this fear he had did not mean it would happen.

As for this man, it is either he has doubt and someone has cast doubt over him or that he seeks to argue and bring forth doubt from something that is clear. Either way, the Muslim has a way out of this and it is easy, and it is that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم fearing that something would occur, does not mean that it would occur.


2. Question: I work in a large company as a Manager and sometimes I have to meet the people and I have to shake hands with the women that have power in this company; does this break my fast?
Answer:'No'. Talking, shaking hands or touching does not break the fast but what breaks it is having relations or penetrating or foreplay causing liquid to come out, these would break the fast. But as for playing or talking where the manee, (seminal fluid) does not come out, then this does not break the person's fast.


3. Question: If the crescent is seen in a Muslim land, is it upon the Muslims in a non-Muslim land to follow suit because there isn't an Islaamic law system there?
Answer:Yes – if the crescent is seen in an Eastern land, then whoever is west (of that land) must also fast because if the moon was seen in the East, then it is to be seen in the West. If the moon in a Muslim land or a non-Muslim land is seen in the East, then it would be seen in the West, but not the opposite. For instance, if it is seen in Saudia, it is not binding upon the Japanese to fast because between us and them is more than a night and the Scholars have noted that "whoever the night brings between them together, then they have the same crescent, they have the same ru'yah (sighting) of the crescent (new moon)."

If it seen in the West and it is not seen in the East because the moon did not depart from the sun until after it had passed over that land, then it is not binding upon its people to fast. And from what the Scholars have always said, the person in Kharasaan – that is today in the Eastern part of Iran, I believe, he doesn't have to fast based on the people seeing it in al-Andalus – that is the Peninsula which is now Spain and Portugal in Europe.


4. Question: A question was asked concerning voting and if voting should be done if it would bring forth some benefit or take away some harm, or give the Muslims more power. And the Shaykh ibn 'Uthaymeen, when he was here he deemed it permissible but some people still deem it haraam. What is the just saying on this?
Answer: The Shaykh said that he answered this a few years back, either in the Haram or on the program call Noor 'alad-Darb. He said that the Muslim should do that which would bring benefit to Islaam and the Muslims, and it is known that no benefit can come about through disobedience of Allaah and His Messenger. Where there is no ruling concerning a matter, in the book or the Sunnah, and this action would bring forth some type of benefit to Islaam, then it can be done. As such, voting for a man who might bring to the Muslims something better than which they have, or keep away from them harm that is upon them, or he is better in comparison with his opponent; then there is no problem with voting for that man.

The Muslims should make ijtihaad i.e. a great effort in finding out what is best for them and most beneficial. They may get it or they may not, but they would have tried based upon hope that they would have done this good and brought benefit to Islaam and there is no haraam in that. In some lands the number of Muslims is great and if they work together they would have a good effect in choosing. For instance, if there are ten million (10,000,000) Muslims and they vote for a man they see is not taken by desires, swung left and right, but he is truthful and returns the favour, then there is no problem in choosing such a man.


5. Question: A question was asked concerning Muslims that have restaurants or something like this and they sell to the Kuffaar. (The question asked was: What is the ruling on opening restaurants in the lands of the Kuffaar in Ramadaan on the part of Muslims, is this permissible?)
Answer: 'Yes', there is no problem with a Muslim opening a restaurant or a store that sells food and such things, and selling it to the people that are not commanded with this command (of fasting in Ramadaan). He may sell it to them but he should not sell to the Muslim that are ordered with this (fasting). He should not sell to the Muslim knowing that the Muslim would eat before the time. But as for selling it to the people that are not ordered with this then there is no problem.


6. Question: A question was asked: I have an illness and this illness is continuous and I have to take medicine every four (4) hours. Should I fast and take my medicine only every four hours?
Answer: If the medicine is taken through the muscle or through al-wareed (veins) it is fine. But if the person takes it through the mouth, then there is no doubt he is breaking his fast. If he is in need of this medicine and his illness is like this i.e. continuous, then it is not permissible for him to fast. But if there is hope that he may one day be cured, and that he may be cured soon, then he may make these days up when that happens. But if the illness is not temporary, then nothing is upon him, but he can if he likes, feed a miskeen (needy) everyday. This would be good, it would be alright if he did this, but it is not binding upon him, it is not waajib.


7. Question: Is fasting considered like salaah, i.e. is the one that does not do it, a kaafir?
Answer: They Shaykh حفظه الله said that if we know that fasting is a pillar from the pillars and we leave one of the pillars on purpose, then it is considered kufr in Islaam or khurooj (exiting) from al-Islaam. If the pillars are destroyed, then the building is gone. The Scholars didn't make it tough for the people, because fasting is a secret – it may be apparent that the person is not fasting but in reality, he is. So, they did not try to find out. But if this man or this person is eating and drinking in front of the people, then it is known he is not fasting and if he is not fasting intentionally, without a legitimate excuse from Sharee'ah, then he is considered a kaafir.


8. Question: Concerning a person hearing the adhaan, can he continue eating or drinking?
Answer: The Shaykh حفظه الله said the adhaan has been made as a sign for the beginning of fasting and the end of fasting; so if a man hears the adhaan at the time of Fajr and he has some food or drink in his hand, there is no problem with him finishing this. He may finish his food and drink because the religion is easy[20] and it is not tough.


9. Question: I am a truck driver and I drive daily from city to city. So do I come under the category of al-musaafir or is it waajib upon me to fast in Ramadaan. Please note that this is my job through out the year.
Answer: Fasting is permissible for the person that is travelling, except in the situation where he fears that it might harm him. So as for this person that is always travelling, it is permissible for him to fast unless this is going to harm him. At the time of the Prophet of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم they would go out to certain battles and some of the people would be fasting and no one would say anything – it was fine if they were fasting or if they didn't fast. In the hadith it came that: We used to go on trips with the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم and some of us would fast and some of us would not, and the ones who were fasting would not argue with the ones who were not fasting, and the ones who were not fasting would not argue with the ones that were fasting about their fasting.[21] And in this situation where the person is always travelling, it is better for him that he fasts in this situation unless it is going to cause him some bodily harm.


10. Question: A sister says that she is pregnant and her sister is breast feeding so do they come under the category of [being] sick or is it okay for them to feed for all missed days without making up the fast of the missing days?
Answer: The Shaykh حفظه الله said as for the one who is pregnant or the one who is breastfeeding, if they fear upon themselves some kind of harm, then they would take the ruling of the person that is sick and they don't have to fast. But if they fear for instance that whilst fasting (there may be) some harm upon the baby or the foetus, then it is upon them to make it up later as well as a kaffarah (expiation), which is to feed a miskeen for each day. There is some khilaaf (differing) in this issue and some of the people say that they should also feed the masaakeen (needy). But what he (the Shaykh) sees, is that they only make it up, and they have to make up the time that they missed for the days that they did not fast.


11. Question: Does bleeding invalidate the fast and what is the ruling for the drawing of blood for lab (tests) during the day in Ramadaan?
Answer: As for someone who loses blood unwillingly such as one who fell or was cut or something like this, then his fasting still stands, unless he has to go ahead and break his fast because he was weakened by too much blood being lost. He can go ahead and break his fast.

As for the person that does it on purpose such as al-Hijaama or drawing this type of blood, then there is a khilaaf on the issue. Some of the people say he has broken his fast but the Shaykh حفظه الله said that if it is a lot of blood, then he has broken his fast. However, if it was just enough, a little bit i.e. he just took enough for the sample to be tested in the lab and there was not much blood taken out, then his fast still stands.


12. Question: What is the ruling for the one who delays fasting missed days for an entire year without making up the fast until another Ramadaan?
Answer: This is action is not permissible. It is not permissible or halaal for anyone to do this – that is to not make up the fast from one Ramadaan to the next. He can't do this unless there is a legislated reason such as illness or travelling for the whole year without having a break for instance. That would be a permissible reason for him that he missed making up the Siyaam. But if this person did it out of laziness or neglecting the Siyaam itself, then this is haraam and he has brought some sin upon himself by leaving off the fasting because it should be done before the next Ramadaan and some of the 'Ulamaa, they say this person has to make it up and pay the kaffarah (expiation) i.e. pays or feed the masaakeen (needy). Others say he should just make it up. However, making it up is waajib in both cases and he should not be doing this.


13. Question: What is the ruling on using eye, nose and ear drops during the day in Ramadaan and is using kohl on the eyes permissible during the day?
Answer: As for the nose drops, if this person is certain that it is not going to reach into his throat and end up in his stomach, then it is permissible. But if he fears, or is not sure that the drops might fall into his throat and end up in his stomach, then it is not permissible. He should know that whatever goes through the nose can find its way down to the stomach, and at certain times it (the nose) is used for feeding a sick person or nurturing him. And sometimes, the stomach is cleaned through the nose.

As for the eye drops or kohl, then this is not something that would cause you to break your fast because it does not lead in anything entering into your stomach. Even though sometimes, from the nose, there might come out something of the color of blood or something like this; but this still does not mean that the eye drops or the Kohl has broken your fast.


14. Question: Wouldn't voting or participating in elections be considered as assisting the kuffaar in having authority over the Muslims?
Answer: If the Muslims refrain from voting, then are the elections going to be nullified or are they still going to go forth or not? If this President is going to be put forth (elected), and if it is true that whether the Muslims vote or not it's going to go through, and they see that in electing someone to office is better for them than the opposing party - if they see that this is the situation; or if they see that this person is better than the other – he's going to be easy with the Muslims or better with them than the opposition, then in this situation, it is good for them to vote.

But if they don't vote and they sit back and there is an opposing party that is clear that it is opposing the Muslims, and it would cause some harm upon the Muslims, then this is not good. In fact, it would be hurting the Muslims, or helping to hurt the Muslims because you have not voted for the party that would help the Muslims.


References & Notes

[1] Reported with the following wording as part of a hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab as-Siyaam (#1151) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
كل عمل ابن آدم يضاعف الحسنة عشرة أمثالها إلا سبعمائة ضعف. قال الله عز وجل: إلا الصوم. فإنه لي وأنا أجزي به. يدع شهوته وطعامه من أجلي...

[2] The Shaykh حفظه الله did not mention it as being a hadeeth, but it is reported in Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh as part of a Da'eef hadeeth Vol. 1 (#1965).
الذي أوله رحمة وأوسطه مغفرة وآخره عتق من النار

[3] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab al-Jihaad was-Sayr (#2783) and with a similar wording in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab Fadaa'il as-Sahaabah (#2406).
فوالله لأن يهدي اللَّه بك رجلاً واحداً خير لك من حمر النعم

[4] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab at-Tafseer (#4281) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
{كنتم خير أمة أخرجت للناس}. قال: خير الناس للناس، تأتون بهم في السلاسل في أعناقهم، حتى يدخلوا في الإسلام

[5] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1831) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه, and in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1155).

إذا نسي فأكل وشرب فليتم صومه، فإنما أطعمه الله وسقاه

[6] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1804); Kitaab al-Adab (#5710) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
من لم يدع قول الزور والعمل به، فليس لله حاجة في أن يدع طعامه وشرابه

[7] Reported as part of a longer hadith in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-Riqaaq (#6137) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
وما تقرب إلي عبدي بشيء أحب إلي مما افترضت عليه، وما يزال عبدي يتقرب إلي بالنوافل حتى أحبه، فإذا أحببته: كنت سمعه الذي يسمع به، وبصره الذي يبصر به، ويده التي يبطش بها، ورجله التي يمشي بها، وإن سألني لأعطينَّه، ولئن استعاذني لأعيذنَّ

[8] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-Eemaan (#38), Kitaab Salaahtut-Taraaweeh (#1910) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
من صام رمضان إيمانا واحتسابا، غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه

[9] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-Eemaan (#37) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه and in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab Salaah al-Musaafireen wa Qasruhaa (#759)
من قام رمضان إيمانا واحتسابا غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه

[10] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab as-Sawm as part of a longer hadith (#1802) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
من قام ليلة القدر إيمانا واحتسابا غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه


[11] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaari Kitaab al-Witr (#946) from ibn 'Umar and in Saheeh Muslim Kitaab Salaah al-Musaafireen wa Qasruhaa (#749).
صلاة الليل مثنى مثنى, فإذا خشي أحدكم الصبح صلّى ركعة واحدة, توتر له ما قد صلى

[12] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaari Kitaab Salaatit-Taraaweeh (#1909) from 'Aisha رضي الله عنها and Saheeh Muslim Kitaab Salaah al-Musaafireen wa Qasruhaa (#738).
ما كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يزيد في رمضان، ولا في غيره، على إحدى عشرة ركعة. يصلي أربعا فلا تسأل عن حسنهن وطولهن. ثم يصلي أربعا فلا تسأل عن حسنهن وطولهن. ثم يصلي ثلاثا

[13] Reported as part of a longer hadith in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Abwaab at-Tatawu' (#1118) from 'Aisha رضي الله عنها
كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصلي بالليل ثلاث عشرة ركعة، ثم يصلي، إذا سمع النداء بالصبح، ركعتين خفيفتين

[14] Reported with the following wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Kitaab Salaah at-Taraaweeh (#1920) from 'Aisha رضي الله عنها
كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا دخل العشر شد مئزره، وأحيا ليله، وأيقظ أهله

[15] Reported in Saheeh Muslim Vol.3 Kitaab al-i'tikaaf (#1175) from 'Aisha رضي الله عنها. Also by at-Tirmidhi, ibn Maajah and Ahmad with a similar wording and Shaykh al-Albaani رحمه الله says Saheeh in Silsilah as-Saheehah 5/157 (#2123).
كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يجتهد في العشر الأواخر، ما لا يجتهد في غيره

[16] Shaykh al-Albaanee says Saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami' (#3810). Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1810) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه with a similar wording.
صوموا لرؤيته وأفطروا لرؤيته فإن غم عليكم فأكملوا شعبان ثلاثين

[17] Reported in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1081) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
صوموا لرؤيته وأفطروا لرؤيته. فإن غمى عليكم فأكملوا العدد

[18] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1807) from 'Abdullaah ibn 'Umar رضي الله عنهما and Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1080).
لا تصوموا حتى تروا الهلال، ولا تفطروا حتى تروه، فإن غم عليكم فاقدروا له

[19] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-Jamaa'ah wal-Imaamah (#696) from 'Aisha رضي الله عنها
كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصلي من الليل في حجرته، وجدار الحجرة قصير، فرأى الناس شخص النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقام أناس يصلون بصلاته، فأصبحوا فتحدثوا بذلك، فقام ليلة الثانية، فقام معه أناس يصلون بصلاته، صنعوا ذلك ليلتين أو ثلاثا، حتى إذا كان بعد ذلك، جلس رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فلم يخرج، فلما أصبح ذكر ذلك الناس فقال: (إني خشيت أن تكتب عليكم صلاة الليل)

[20] Reported as part of a longer hadith in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-Eemaan (#39) from Abi Hurayrah رضي الله عنه
إن الدين يسر...

[21] Reported as part of a longer hadith in Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab as-Sawm (#1116) from Abi Sa'eed al-Khudree.
كنا نغزو مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في رمضان فمنا الصائم ومنا المفطر. فلا يجد الصائم على المفطر. ولا المفطر على الصائم

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